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The New World Trade Center Complex in Lower Manhattan

Posted by Jae on May 8, 2011

Future of where the twin towers stood.

Progress on the construction of the redesigned site is as follows:

  • 1 World Trade Center – Construction began in April 2006; two years later, tower-foundation steel columns, concrete, and rebar had been installed. In 2006, the Port Authority took over from Silverstein Properties as the project’s developer. Tishman Construction Corporation is the construction manager. The estimated completion date is 2013.
  • 2 World Trade Center – Groundbreaking in July 2008.
  • 3 World Trade Center – Groundbreaking in March 2008. In April 2008, excavation and preparations for foundation work took place.
  • 4 World Trade Center – Construction began in 2008.
  • 5 World Trade Center – Construction began on January 1, 2009. The Port Authority acts as the building’s developer.
  • 7 World Trade Center – Off of Port Authority land, the tower opened on May 23, 2006 and achieved LEED gold status.
  • National September 11 Memorial & Museum – Under construction. The Memorial will include a Museum and two square pools where the Twin Towers formerly stood. The Memorial is on schedule for a September 11, 2011 opening, coinciding with the 10th anniversary of the attacks.
  • Performing Arts Center

1 World Trade Center

2 World Trade Center

Two World Trade Center is a skyscraper under construction as part of the new World Trade Center at 200 Greenwich Street in New York City. When completed, the tower will be located where the former 5 World Trade Center building was located, on the east side of Greenwich Street, across the street from the original location of the Twin Towers that were destroyed during the September 11 attacks. This tower will be the last to be built.

The 79-story building was designed by Foster and Partners, London. The building will have a height of 387 m, with a tripod-shaped antenna that allows the building to reach a total height of 411 m. In comparison, the Empire State Building’s roof at the 102nd floor is 381 m tall, and its antenna is 448 m, and the original 2 World Trade Center (often referred to as the “South Tower”) was 415 m.

When constructed, the tower will be the second–tallest skyscraper on the World Trade Center site and the third–tallest in New York City, following One World Trade Center and the Empire State Building. The sloping roof consisting of four diamonds inclined toward the memorial will provide a visual marker around the skyline of just where the original towers were. The tower is designed to resemble a diamond, with cross bracing intersects and indentations breaking up the sides. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey said the following about 200 Greenwich Street’s wedged rooftop: “Designed by Lord Norman Foster, the tower incorporates WTC master planner Daniel Libeskind’s ‘wedge of light’ concept, and will cast no shadow on the memorial park on September 11.”

3 World Trade Center

Three World Trade Center is a skyscraper to become part of the World Trade Center reconstruction in New York City. The office building, which resembles the John Hancock Center in Chicago, will be on the east side of Greenwich Street, across the street from the original location of the Twin Towers that were destroyed during the September 11 attacks. Pritzker Prize-winning architect Lord Richard Rogers (Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners) was awarded the contract to design the building, which will be 352 m in structural height with a pinnacle height of 378 m.

4 World Trade Center

Four World Trade Center is a skyscraper under construction as part of the new World Trade Center in New York City at 150 Greenwich Street on the east side of Greenwich Street, across from the original location of the Twin Towers that were destroyed during the September 11, 2001 attacks. Pritzker Prize-winning architect Fumihiko Maki was awarded the contract to design the building, which will be 297 m tall. The building’s groundbreaking took place in January 2008, and it is scheduled to be completed by 2012. The structural engineer for the building is Leslie E. Robertson Associates, New York City.  As of April 2011, only it and One World Trade Center (the 7 WTC is already totally completed) have progressed to the point where the construction is visible above ground level.

5 World Trade Center

Five World Trade Center,also referred to by its street address, 130 Liberty Street, is a new World Trade Center building to be located in New York City. It will be located on Site 5 of the new World Trade Center complex (former Deutsche Bank Building), but not exactly on the main plot of land as the other four buildings.  Originally, it was designed to be a 42 story building to rise about 226 m, but currently this tower’s plan is in “limbo”.

7 World Trade Center (the only one currently completed and opened for business)

The new 7 World Trade Center has 52 stories and is 226 m tall.  The first ten floors house an electrical substation, which provides power to much of Lower Manhattan. The office tower has a narrower footprint at ground level than its predecessor so the course of Greenwich Street could be restored to reunite TriBeCa and the Financial District.

David Childs of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill worked in conjunction with glass artist and designer James Carpenter to create a design that uses ultra-clear, low-iron glass to provide reflectivity and light, with stainless-steel spandrels behind the glass to help reflect sunlight. Stainless steel used in the building façade is molybdenum-containing Type 316, which provides improved resistance to corrosion. To enclose the power substation and improve its aesthetics, the base of the building has a curtain wall with stainless steel louvers that provide ventilation for the machinery. During the day, the curtain wall reflects light, while at night it is illuminated with blue LED lights. The curtain wall around the lobby uses heavily laminated, heat-strengthened glass that meets high standards for blast resistance. At night, a large cube of light above the lobby also emanates blue light, while during the day it provides white light to the lobby, and at dusk it transitions to violet and back to blue.  Inside the main lobby, artist Jenny Holzer created a large light installation with glowing text moving across wide plastic panels. The entire wall, which is 20 m wide and 4 m tall, changes color according to the time of day.

Nearly 30 percent of structural steel used in the building consists of recycled steel. Rainwater is collected and used for irrigation of the park and to cool the building. Along with other sustainable design features, the building is designed to allow in plenty of natural light, power is metered to tenants to encourage them to conserve energy, the heating steam is reused to generate some power for the building, and recycled materials are used for insulation and interior materials.

National September 11 Memorial & Museum:

In August 2006, the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began heavy construction on the National September 11 Memorial & Museum. The Memorial will be located at the World Trade Center site, on the former location of the Twin Towers destroyed during the September 11 attacks in 2001. The World Trade Center Memorial Foundation was renamed the National September 11 Memorial & Museum at the World Trade Center in 2007. The winner of the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition was Israeli-American architect Michael Arad of Handel Architects, a New York and San Francisco-based firm. Arad worked with landscape architecture firm Peter Walker and Partners on the design which calls for a forest of trees with two square pools in the center, where the Twin Towers once stood.


Posted in New York City Skyscraper, Skyscraper | 2 Comments »

Digital Media City Landmark Building

Posted by Jae on February 3, 2011

The Digital Media City Landmark Building (Korean: 디지털 미디어 시티 랜드마크 빌딩) or DMC Landmark Building, also known as Seoul Lite, is a 133-floor, 640 m supertall skyscraper under construction in Digital Media City, Seoul, South Korea. It will be the tallest building in both Korea and East Asia. Construction broke ground on 16 October 2009, and is scheduled to be completed and ready for occupancy by April 2015.  It will be built with the country’s own capital and technology at an estimated cost of 3.3 trillion won (US$2.9 billion).

The design and engineering of the DMC Landmark Building is performed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. The local architect of record is Samoo. The building will house an observation deck on 133rd floor at 540 m, from which visitors will be able to see the entire metropolis of Seoul and as far as Gaeseong, North Korea. It will be the highest observation deck in the world, higher than those of Burj Khalifa on the 124th floor at 440 m and the 100th floor of the Shanghai World Financial Center at 474 m. Premium hotels will be located on the 108th-130th floors, surpassing the Park Hyatt Hotel (79th-93rd floors) in the Shanghai World Financial Center, as the highest hotel rooms in the world.

All functions of a futuristic, 21st century city are incorporated into the building, including the most high-tech office and residential spaces, a department store, luxury shopping malls, a large convention center, the world’s largest interactive aquarium, international restaurants and facilities for media, culture and exhibitions.

The landmark building is backed by the Seoul Metropolitan Government and is being constructed at the fastest speed among major skyscraper projects by South Korea’s Samsung C&T, whose work includes Burj Khalifa, Taipei 101 and the Petronas Twin Towers.

Originally designed to be angular twin towers to rise as high as 690 m, the final design has changed substantially to a rounder, more curve-based design featuring the concept of “Seoul Wave”, which represents Seoul’s status as a city of history, globalization, culture and environment. It also transforms the historic meaning and image of the Smoke-Signal Station on Namsan mountain, or a beacon mound on the mountain as a traditional measure of communications, to a flow of “light”, which symbolizes a modern measure of communications, or the digital industry. The building’s façade resembling a lighthouse is aimed at expressing a vision as a “light leading the new millennium.”

The three main concepts of the DMC Landmark Building are Digital Media, Eco Design and Human Culture. For this reason, it was also called Seoul Lite before being officially named the Digital Media City Landmark Building. The outward appearance of the building is to be made in a style reminiscent of the windows of traditional Korean houses. Its design specifies the installation of an exterior super skin containing 40,000 LED panels that emit light of various colors.  The bamboo-type structure of the building, with the heart section left empty, increases its resistance to bending three-fold, thus enhancing its structural stability against earthquakes and due to wind.vibration.  The landmark building’s green rooftop will bring about a heat insulation effect. The installation of automatic ventilation windows on the surface of the building will aid the supply of fresh air and save considerable energy. A mirror installed in the building will direct sunlight towards the lower floors. That, along with the use of geothermal heat and a photovoltaic generation system, using the side walls of the building, will make it possible to save considerable amounts of energy.

Floors Use
132-133 Observatory, Media Art Center
131 Broadcasting facility, Open studio
128-130 Concert restaurant
108-130 Luxury six to eight-star hotels
85-107 Family and business hotels
46-84 First-class apartments
9-45 High-tech offices of IT, media, communication and financial businesses
7-8 Large convention centers
1-7 Department stores, shopping malls and a clinic center


World’s largest interactive aquarium, Digital Media Hall 


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Lotte Super Tower 123

Posted by Jae on January 4, 2011

Lotte Super Tower 123 is a 123-floor supertall skyscraper currently being erected in Lotte World 2, Seoul, South Korea. It is located next to the existing Lotte World complex which opened back in 1989. Ground was broken in 2005 but due to nearby airport’s height restrictions, further construction was postponed to February 2010 when restrictions were removed in 2009. At 555 m in height (taller than any skyscraper in the United States currently completed or under construction), the building would become one of the world’s tallest buildings when completed in 2014. The Lotte Group of South Korea is owner and developer of the project.

The conceptual design calls for a slender cone with convex, gently curved sides. An exterior of pale-colored glass draws inspiration from Korean ceramics and features accents of metal filigree. Located near the Han River, the tower will contain retail outlets (floors 1-6), offices (7-60), residences (61-85), a luxury hotel (86-119), and public access floors (120-123) with an observation deck.

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Tianjin Tower

Posted by Jae on May 29, 2010

The Tianjin Tower, Jin Tower, or Tianjin World Financial Center (traditional Chinese: 津塔) is a modern supertall skyscraper in Tianjin, China. Tianjin, China is set to become the “economical hub” for northern China (Shanghai is the hub for eastern China while Shenzhen is the hub for southern China).  The mixed-use tower is set to rise 337 m and contain 76 floors. The skyscraper is expected to open sometime later this year (2010).

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Almas Tower

Posted by Jae on May 12, 2010

Almas Tower

Almas Tower (Arabic: برج الماس‎  meaning Diamond Tower) is an “office” skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.  The building is 74 storey, 360 m tall  and was the tallest building in Dubai, before the Burj Khalifa was completed.  The tower is located on its own artificial island in the center of the Jumeirah Lake Towers scheme, it will remain as the tallest of all the buildings on this island when the development is completed.

Jumeirah Lake Towers

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Guangzhou West Tower – Will This Be China’s Tallest Twin Towers?

Posted by Jae on April 28, 2010

An Artist Rendering

Guangzhou West Tower (simplified Chinese: 广州国际金融中心; traditional Chinese: 廣州國際金融中心) is a 103 story, 440 m tall supertall skyscraper (the Sears Tower now officially the Willis Tower is 442 m) under construction (topped out in December 31st, 2008) at Guangzhou, China.

When “open-for-business” the building and its twin will become one of the tallest buildings in the world.  They will be used as a conference center, a hotel and offices. Floors 1 to 66 are planned to be used as offices, floors 67 to 68 are for mechanical equipment, floors 69 to 98 as a hotel, and in floors 99 – 100 there will be an observation deck. In the future, an East Tower will be built next to this building. It is not clear what the design of the East Tower will be. Will it be a twin?

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Northeast Asia Trade Tower – New Tallest in South Korea

Posted by Jae on January 1, 2010

Northeast Asia Trade Tower

The Northeast Asia Trade Tower or NEATT is a 305 m, 68 floor skyscraper currently topped-out in New Songdo City, a massive real estate project in Incheon, South Korea, which is close by the nation’s capital of Seoul.   The tower is currently South Korea’s tallest building and will be the landmark structure of the planned city.

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Nanjing Greenland Financial Center – Tallest in Nanjing, China

Posted by Jae on November 30, 2009

Nanjing Greenland Financial Center

The Nanjing Greenland Financial Center (also known as the Greenland Square Zifeng Tower) is a 450 m tall skyscraper (official height is taller than the Sears/Willis Tower in Chicago) currently topped out in Nanjing, China with completion expected in 2009 and being opened for business early 2010.

The 89-story building will feature office space and retail space in the lower section, restaurants and a public observatory near the top (72nd floor – 287 m above the ground), and will be topped off with a spire.  This observation deck will provide an unobstructed, panoramic view of Nanjing and the nearby Yangtze River, two lakes and the Ningzheng Ridge mountains.

The mixed-use tower which overlooks Xuanwu Lake became the second tallest building in China (behind the Shanghai World Financial Center and ahead of 2 International Financial Center in Hong Kong) and the 5th tallest building in the world when topped out.

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Wells Fargo Plaza – the Most Beautiful Skyscraper in the “South” (USA)

Posted by Jae on October 5, 2009

Wells Fargo Plaza

Wells Fargo Plaza

The Wells Fargo Plaza, completed in 1983 and formerly knwon as the Allied Bank Plaza and First Interstate Bank Plaza, is located at 1000 Louisiana Street in downtown Houston, USA.  This building is currently the 13th-tallest Building in the United States, and the second tallest building in Texas and Houston, after Houston’s JPMorgan Chase Tower. It is the tallest building named for Wells Fargo.  From street level, the building is 302 m tall, contains 71 floors, and is extensively made of green glass. Only the Wells Fargo Plaza offers direct access from the street to the Houston tunnel system; otherwise, entry points are from street-level stairs, escalators, and elevators located inside buildings that are connected to the tunnel.

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Burj Dubai – Tallest Skyscraper/Free-Standing Object/Man-Made Structure in the World

Posted by Jae on September 26, 2009

The Burj Dubai

Burj Dubai

Burj Dubai (Arabic: برج دبي‎ “Dubai Tower”), a supertall skyscraper topped-out in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, is the tallest man-made structure ever built, at 818 m. Construction began on 21 September 2004, and the tower is expected to be ready for occupancy by early 2010.

The building is part of the 2 km2 flagship development called “Downtown Burj Dubai” at the “First Interchange” along Sheikh Zayed Road, near Dubai’s main business district. The tower’s architect is Adrian Smith, who worked with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) until 2006. The Chicago-based architecture and engineering firm SOM is in charge of the project. The primary builders are Samsung Engineering & Construction and Besix.


  • 21 September 2004: Emaar contractors begin construction.
  • February 2007: Surpasses the Sears Tower (since renamed to the Willis Tower) as the building with the most floors.
  • 13 May 2007: Sets record for vertical concrete pumping on any building at 452 m, surpassing the 449.2 m  to which concrete was pumped during the construction of Taipei 101.
  • 21 July 2007: Surpasses Taipei 101, whose height of 509.2 m made it the world’s tallest building.
  • 12 August 2007: Surpasses the Sears Tower (Willis Tower) antenna, which stands 527.3 m
  • 3 September 2007: Becomes the second-tallest freestanding structure, surpassing the 540 m Ostankino Tower in Moscow.
  • 12 September 2007: At 555.3 m, becomes the world’s tallest freestanding structure, surpassing the CN Tower in Toronto.
  • 7 April 2008: At 629 m, surpasses the KVLY-TV Mast to become the tallest man-made structure ever.
  • 1 September 2008: Height tops 688 m, making it the tallest man-made structure ever built, surpassing the previous record-holder, the Warsaw Radio Mast in Konstantynów, Poland.
  • 17 January 2009: Topped out at 818 m.

Current records

  • Tallest structure: 818 m (previously KVLY-TV mast – 628.8 m)
  • Tallest freestanding structure: 818 m (previously CN Tower – 553.3 m)
  • Building with most floors: 160 (previously World Trade Center – 110)
  • World’s highest elevator installation
  • Worlds fastest elevators at speed of 64 km/h or 18 m/s (previously Taipei 101 – 16.83 m/s)
  • Highest vertical concrete pumping (for a building): 601 m (previously Taipei 101 – 449.2 m)
  • Highest vertical concrete pumping (for any construction): 601 m  (previously Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant – 532 m)
  • The first world’s tallest structure in history to include residential space
Height Comparison

Height Comparison

At the time of its opening, the official name of this tower has been changed to Burj Khalifa.

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